Whither Nepalese Left

(While in Nepal on his mission to complete the documentation project on Indian freedom struggle, I Mallikarjuna Sharma recently spoke with Sahana Pradhan, President of the Communist Party of Nepal(ML) to understand the tendencies now developing on the communist left of Nepal. Excerpts:)

e were all part of the United Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) led by Late Manmohan Adhikari. He was even the Prime Minister for two times and I was a minister in his cabinet once. But Manmohan Adhikari gradually turned a rightist. He bagan to say :

  1. The multiparty system in Nepal is the ulitmate. We need not go any further.
  2. We should join the Socialist International.
  3. The hammer and sickle banner is only to influecne the masses and attract the voters, But, otherwise, the days of revolution/armed struggle etc. of yore have passed away forever.

But we, the militant sections of the party, had violently differed with these rightist tendencies and separated from the party two years back. At that time about 46 M P (In Nepal they are called Members of the Pratinidhi Sabha) of the party were in our fold when we separated from the Communist Party of Nepal (United M-L) and formed our own Communist Party of Nepal (M-L). Balram Upadhyaya is the Chief of our Advisory Board. Within a very short time we formed and developed our party branches in 73 out of 75 districts in Nepal. We have two categories of members — Ordinary and Organized. Organized members are our real cadres. All youth activists disenchanted with the rightist policies of Late Adhikari i.e of the Communist Party of Nepal (United M-L) as also with the ultra left policies of the Maoist Party i.e. Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) led by Baburam Bhattaray and Prachand, are joining us in great numbers.

We have a front with like-minded and somewhat more-left-than-us parties and organizations. It is called Nine Left — Nou Vaam Morcha. This is a losely coordinated morcha (front) — issue-wise (demand based). The earlier Seven Left morcha during the great Janandolan (people’s agitaion) of 1990 was of a more cohesive and strong nature. It was called the Samyukt Vaam Morcha. At that time nothing like the present Maoist party was here. All of us communists were united and were in the UCPN (M-L). The following are the constituents of the present Nou Vaam Morcha :

  1. Communist Party of Nepal (M-L) : We oppose the present multiparty democracy in Nepal and strive for a real people’s multiparty democracy. We do participate in elections. Previously we did not believe in Mao-tse-tung thought but presently we too are saying that Mao-tse-tung thought is the Marxism Leninism of the present era. We do have good relations with the Communist Party of China but we are not happy with their present policies, especailly their policy of strict non-intervention in the so-called ‘internal policies’ of Nepalese communists.
  2. Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre): It is
  3. more to the left than us. But they are not so

    widespread and have powerful influence and

    presence in 8-9 districts only. They too

    participate in elections. But they do not have

    much relation with the Communist Party of




  • Samyukta Jan Morcha : They talk about New Democracy. They are against any sort of multiparty democracy but want one-party rule. Previously they used to boycott elections. But recenlty they also changed their line and are participating in elections. They have considerable presence or strength in 2-3 districts only.
  • Communist Party of Nepal (United) : Once
  • it was very close to the Communist party

    of India but now it has turned more

    militant and leftist here. It has presence or

    strength in 2-3 districts only.

  • Kishan Mazdoor (Peasants and Workers) Party : It has considerable strength in Bhaktapur district and another district in West Nepal only.
  • Communist Party of Nepal (Marxvadi) : They were a marxist group which did not join the United Communist Party of Nepal (M-L) even during the great Janandolan of 1990. In fact they could not digest the slogan of multiparty democracy and always stood for New Democracy. They have not control over or considerable strength in any district but have not control over or considerable strength in any district.

  • Communist Prty of Nepal (ML-Maoist) : They are a small party having no considerable strength in any district but have presence in a few districts.
  • Mashaal (Torch) : Led by Mohan Vikram and others. It believes in Mao Thought and New Democracy. It is not a national party but has strength in some pockets. It has 4 MPs in the present Parliament.

  • Samyukta Jan Andolan : It is an ultra-left front and has some relation with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) which is presently in the thick of the armed struggle.
  • We are conducting militant people’s struggle under the banner of this Nine Left Morcha. Just a few month back we staged a huge dharna in front of our Parliament. (The Singh Durbar). About 20,000 people gathered at the place and did dharna. The police acted quite provocatively but we kept our cool and did not give them a chance to pounce upon us and commit excesses. It was a peaceful and quite impressive dharna.

    In Nepal the common people have great respect for the Raja (King). They adore him and almost worship him as an avatara of God. The King too believes that he is a daivansa sambhuta or much more, the very avatara of Vishnu himself. That is why he does not go and worship at the great temple of Seshasai Vishnu. His logic is that since he himself is an incarnation of Vishnu, he does not need to go there. However, he is devoted and cautious enough to go to the great Pashupatinath Temple on the auspicious days and worship him. On the birth day of the King, people from even very remote districts of Nepal trek to Kathmandu — they travel scores/hundreds of miles on foot for the occasion and one can find a great crowd near his palace to have just a glimpse (darshan) of his person on that day. In this background one cannot even think of advancing a slogan for the end of monarchy in Nepal. So we do never advance slogans for the